Indians generate more than 55 million tons of solid waste every year and that could increase to 240 million tons by 2047 as per The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) estimates. As of 2003, it was estimated that only 27% of India’s wastewater was being treated, with the remainder flowing into rivers, canals, groundwater or the sea.  The outcome of which is a polluted and toxic rivers. NewsWeek describes Delhi’s sacred Yamuna River as “a putrid ribbon of black sludge” where the concentration of fecal bacteria is found to be 10,000 times more than the recommended safe limit. The holy River Ganges is no different, if not worse.

  1. Clean water

Clean water and sanitation are one of the necessities of life. Unclean water is one of the biggest health concern of humans today. People drink impure water even today in the African region. 784 million people still drink dirty water.

  1. Environmental Toxicology

Toxic chemicals, gases, toxins and persistent organic pollutants exist around us all the time. They can cause health impacts on the humans, animals, plants, soil and in water. The health impacts vary from skin infections to genetic disorders. The pesticides can enter our food chain. The rate for brain cancer can increase up to 20 percent with the exposure to pesticides.

  1. Air quality and pollution

Industrial activities and vehicular emissions are the two biggest sources of the air pollution. It can harm the animal and plant life as well as human respiration system. Many of the industries are taking initiatives to decrease the air pollution and using renewable energy sources. Some use cyclones, electronic precipitators, and thermal oxidizers to reduce the release of gases into air. It is concerned with the control of release of gases into air and forming standards that decrease the air quality.

  1. Urban design

It is concerned with the development of communities and urban areas that promote health and safety. If the design is poorly made it can cause release of urban waste and uncontrolled consumption of water.

  1. Climate change and control

It is concerned with the cause and mitigation of climate change. It is the top threat to humanity. It not only causes environmental and economic damage. But also causes in increase in natural disasters such as flooding, earthquakes, avalanches. The flooding will increase to double in 2030. It is focused on formulating rules and regulation for climate change, devising adaptation and mitigation strategies.